GALLERY  -    EUROPE

 
Germany, Italy, Switzerland:
Here are three old specimens.  Rubies of volcanic origin are rare, but the one to the left was apparently brought to the surface by the 1794 eruption of Mount Vesuvius (Italy).  The ruby on the right is from Campolungo, Switzerland.  The brown sapphire is from Freiburg, Germany.  
 
Norway Shown below (L to R) are a small greenish corundum from Traena, a multicolored crystal from Telemark, and three specimens from the Klegaassen Pegmatites, Arendal (Frohland).
 
Macedonia The Sivec Mine near Prilep is a source of translucent pink to peach colored corundum, most of which apparently goes to the artisans of Idar Oberstein.  Pictured below (L to R) are some crystals and clusters, a unique piece with attached mineral (talcite?), and the largest crystal found at the mine (9,984 carats; purchased from the retired mine manager who had found it in the wall of the main shaft).
 
Russia:  Classic localities, and an interesting recent discovery are represented in the collection. 
The northern island of Chit-Ostrov produces interesting ruby crystals in Gneiss.  The violet terminated crystal on the right is unusual.    
 
 The Ilmen Mountains are the source of large, medium to dark blue sapphire crystals,  Some are extremely layered, creating corundum "roses".
On the left are two more Ilmen Mountain crystals.  The large grey green corundum (right) is from the vicinity of Minsk, Russia, and was probably found during the nineteenth century.  It's a doubly terminated single crystal of flattened hexagonal cross-section (ex coll. Andrew
 
Toussaint).  Rubies (bottom right) from a recent discovery in the Polar Urals (northernmost extremity of the Urals mountain chain) have a micaceous cleavage and luster.  Mineral specimens are nice, but facetable stones are rare.
 
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